Why Integration Day is celebrated on September 17, instead of liberation day by Telangana Govt?
September 17 is the day Hyderabad state was integrated into the Indian Union. Some call it Liberation Day
What exactly is the relevance of this date with Indian and Telangana History?
September 17 is the day Hyderabad state was integrated into the Indian Union. Some call it Liberation Day.
Hyderabad had a Muslim ruler with a majorly Hindu and Adivasi population, mostly unlettered and exploited by the rich landlords.
The Nizams were seven in the order . The Nizams ruled Hyderabad state and it had all facilities of an independent country like its own railways, airlines, transport system, judicial system, taxation etc. Major infrastructure in Hyderabad like the High Court, Nampally Railway station, Osmania Hospital, reservoirs like Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were built by them.
On October 8, 1947, a delegation of the Nizam of Hyderabad went to Delhi to negotiate with the Government of India. On the advice of the Governor-General of India, Lord Mountbatten, a group of representatives from Hyderabad prepared to sign a one-year agreement with the Indian government.
According to this agreement, all arrangements between the Nizam and British rulers prior to August 15, 1947 were to be continued as they were. The Kingdom of Hyderabad shall have a subsidiary Constitution to the Union of India. The government should be formed as per the wishes of the people of Hyderabad within a year. On November 29, 1947, the Nizam signed the 'Status Quo Agreement'.
The 1947– 48 period was tense in the Hyderabad state, which consisted of some parts of present day Maharashtra, Karnataka and the entire Telangana region. Mir Osman Ali Khan, the seventh and last monarch, was deliberating between joining India or running an independent state. It gave Quasim Razvi, the General of Razakar army, the chance to take over the political vacuum and to unleash a reign of terror.
The Telangana people were largely peasants doing bonded labour ("vetti chakiri") for the Doras and Deshmukhs. The Nizam had appointed them to collect taxes from the people and Hyderabad state was in fact the richest. One such example is Visnoor Dora Ramachandra Reddy of Janagama taluka, who held around 40,000 acres.
The Communist Party, vexed with this exploitation, started the Telangana Sayudha Poratam or armed struggle. They took lands from rich zamindars and distributed the rights among farmers.
The armed struggle began after Chakali Ailamma, a dhobi and peasant farmer, revolted against the local landlord Visnuru Ramchander Reddy. The murder of Doddi Komaraiah and Shaikh Bandagi are two other incidents which ignited it.
The unrest and growing pressure from the Indian Union forced the Nizam to form a private militia or paramilitary force under the name of "razakars".Qasim Razvi, a failed lawyer from Latur in Maharashtra, took over its reins
This was not a struggle between Hindus and Muslims, but a fight between people and their persecutors.. The Razakars, in exchange for protection, were offered shelter, food etc by the Hindu Doras and Deshmukhs. The Razakars killed pro-India journalist Shoaibullah Khan, Editor of an Urdu publication Imroze. They wreaked havoc on common people and their atrocities knew no bounds.
This act from the Nizam forced "Operation Polo: Police Action" which led to the Nizam finally conceding to the Indian Union. He was appointed the first Raj Pramukh of Hyderabad state. He continued in this capacity till the formation of Andhra Pradesh on November 1, 1956.
On September 17, 1948, it's curtains to the seven-generation "liberal", yet dictatorial, rule in Hyderabad.
Operation Polo is also remembered for the massacre on Muslim families in the Marathwada region. The Sunderlal Committee, appointed by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, concluded that between 30,000-40,000 people had died in all in the state, in a report which was not released until 2013.
This period was a dark phase in Hyderabad history. It is today being milked by the BJP to create a rift between Hindus and Muslims.
The State Government is celebrating 75 years of this integration. It is a day to reflect on the past and be ready for the future. Stay away from fanatics like Qasim Rizvi who believed in "religious supremacy".